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Planning Guidance: Environmental

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  • Digest of Federal Resource Laws, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
  • Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act
  • SMART Planning Feasibility Studies: A Guide to Coordination and Engagement with the Services (2015)
    This guide was developed through a collaboration between the Corps, USFWS and NMFS. The Guide provides an overview of the SMART Planning process and demonstrates how key environmental coordination and compliance activities fit into that process. The Guide highlights opportunities for engagement and coordination at all stages of a planning study, re-emphasizing the need for early coordination.

    Alternative Dispute Resolution

  • Environmental Ends and Engineering Means: Becoming Environmental Engineers for the Nation and the World: Alternative Dispute Resolution Series Working Paper #4 (1991)
    Humanity is moving toward a new consciousness of Earth and nature. The consciousness has been stimulated by often confusing and bitter debates among the engineering and environmental communities. Unfortunately, such experience has left a stronger impression of adversarial rather than cooperative relationships. This impression is and will change. At the bottom line, the public engineering community shares interests with the environmental community that are far deeper than the often held adversarial positions they frequently defend. Public service engineers, the environmental community, and the public(s) need credible government agents as instruments to achieve environmental goals. If government is viewed as incompetent, inefficient or untrustworthy, both the environmental community and the public engineers will suffer. In short, the environmental community and the engineers need one another. To reach environmental ends, the world needs engineering means. To employ engineering means requires justification in terms of environmental ends.
  • Public Involvement; Conflict Management; and Dispute Resolution in Water Resources and Environmental Decision Making: Working Paper #2, Alternative Dispute Resolution Series (1990)
    This paper first discusses reasons and goals for using public involvement and conflict management in water resources and environment decision making. It outlines six concepts: (1) levels of conflict; (2) designing values; (3) visibly isolating extremes; (4) negotiating an interest rather than position; (5) achieving durable settlement; and (6) choosing appropriate techniques. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of how the concepts and techniques have been applied in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers.
  • Public Participation in Designing Our Environmental Future: Working Paper #7, Alternative Dispute Resolution Series (1996)
    A new democratic spirit and a new ecological spirit are two of the most powerful transformational forces in today's world. The interaction between these forces is driving much change in industrialized, reindustrializing, and even third world countries. The democratic spirit calls us to individual freedom, empowerment and transformation. The ecological spirit calls us to a new collective consciousness, collective restraint and a new relationship with nature. But will these forces work to bring people together or to create more adversarial relations? Both spirits confront us with complexity at a time when increasingly we are mesmerized by 60-second sound bites. Both spirits confront us with new responsibilities to understand and accept uncertainty at a time when we in the industrialized world seem constantly to seek a risk-free environment. At a time when people complain about government and bureaucracy, it seems that both spirits confront us with dependence on technical experience and the concomitant increases in bureaucracy and regulation. Both spirits call us to anticipate and to employ long-term vision. At the same time, we seem to be inextricably pushed by rapid rates of change into a short-term focus. North Americans have been adapting traditional democratic institutions to the often-conflicting challenges presented by these forces. Central and Eastern Europeans are responding to similar challenges while also experiencing a revolution in decision-making institutions.

    Engineer Pamphlets (EPs)

  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Appendix A: References (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet lists references in "Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities."
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Appendix B: Legislation Pertinent to the Water Resources Program of the Corps of Engineers (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet lists pertinent legislation in "Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities."
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Appendix C: Executive Orders Pertinent to the Water Resources Program of the Corps of Engineers (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet lists pertinent executive orders in the "Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities."
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Appendix D: Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities- Appendix D: Office of Management and Budget Circulars (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet lists Office of Management and Budget Circulars in the "Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities."
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Appendix E: Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities- Appendix E: Interagency Agreements related to Water Resources (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet describes interagency agreements related to water resources.
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Appendix F: Index (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet provides an index for "Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities."
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Chapter 03: General Policies (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet provides information on the policies that guide Corps decision making and policy making. Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities.
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Chapter 11: Operations, Maintenance, and Project Management (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet provides a detailed look at many facets of Corps project management. Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Chapter 14: Shore Protection (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet discusses the federal interest in beach erosion, flood protection, beach nourishment and emergency protection, among other topics. Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Chapter 15: Stream Bank Erosion Control (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet discusses federal stream bank erosion policy. Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Chapter 17: Recreation (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet discusses federal recreation policy and philosophy, different types of recreation projects, project evaluation, and project finance. Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Chapter 19: Environmental Restoration and Protection (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet discusses ecosystem restoration, environmental authorities within WRDA, wetland policy, other applicable federal policies, and project management. Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Chapter 20: Aquatic Plant Control (1999)
    Aquatic plant control program management. Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Chapter 21: Regulatory Program- Protection of the Public Interest in the Waters of the United States (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet provides background on Corps involvement in water regulation, general policies for evaluating permit applications, and jurisdictional limits. Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1, Chapter 24: Activities Related to Programs Administered by Other Federal Agencies (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet provides information on environmental programs, natural lands, hydroelectric power, and legislation outside Corps authority. Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-1: Digest of Water Resources Policies and Authorities (1999)
    A summary of Corps administrative and legislative water resources policies and authorities.
  • Engineer Pamphlet 1165-2-502: Water Resources Policies and Authorities- Ecosystem Restoration- Supporting Policy Information (1999)
    Engineer Pamphlet provides policy information in support of ER 1165-2-501 to guide Corps of Engineers involvement in ecosystem restoration and protection through Civil Works programs and activities.

    Engineer Regulations (ERs)

  • Engineer Regulation 1105-2-100: Planning Guidance Notebook, Appendix E, Civil Works Mission and Evaluation Procedures (2000)
    This appendix provides policy and planning guidance for project purposes of navigation, flood damage reduction, hurricane and storm damage reduction (shore protection), ecosystem restoration, hydroelectric power, recreation, water supply and multiple purpose projects.
  • Engineer Regulation 1105-2-100: Planning Guidance Notebook, Appendix G - Amendment #1, Planning Reports and Programs (2004)
    This appendix provides guidance and procedures for the management and conduct of planning studies, activities, and programs.
  • Engineer Regulation 1110-1-12: Quality Management (2006)
    Contains information on Project Management Plans, Independent Technical Review, and Risk Management.
  • Engineer Regulation 1110-1-8156: Engineering and Design Policies, Guidance and Requirements for Geospatial Data and Systems (2005)
    This regulation describes how to acquire geospatial data, how to implement geospatial data technology, reduce data duplication, and how to comply with Executive Order (EO) 12906, and Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-16.
  • Engineer Regulation 1110-1-8158: Corps-Wide Centers of Expertise Program (1998)
    This regulation defines the policy and process for establishing and maintaining expert designations under the Corps-wide Centers of Expertise (CX) Program. The program provides an inventory of specialized knowledge and skills within the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) that can furnish beneficial and expert assistance to all Corps elements.
  • Engineer Regulation 1110-2-1400: Reservoir/Water Control Centers (1993)
    This regulation provides for the establishment of Reservoir/Water Control Centers (Centers) to improve capabilities.
  • Engineer Regulation 1110-2-1406: Coastal Field Data Collection (1990)
    This regulation describes the Coastal Field Data Collection (CFDC) Program
  • Engineer Regulation 1110-2-1455: Cooperative Stream Gaging Program (Reports Control Symbol, DAEN-CWH-3) (1984)
    This regulation establishes policy, provides background, and discusses management of the Cooperative Stream Gaging Program.
  • Engineer Regulation 1110-2-1464: Hydrologic Analysis of Watershed Runoff (1994)
    This regulation defines the scope, authorities, and analysis and reporting requirements for performing watershed-runoff analyses.
  • Engineer Regulation 1110-2-8154: Water Quality and Environmental Management at Corps Civil Works Projects (1995)
    This regulation establishes a Policy for Water Quality Management Programs at Corps Civil Works Projects.
  • Engineer Regulation 1110-2-8160: Policies for Referencing Project Elevation Grades to Nationwide Vertical Datum (2009)
    This regulation provides guidance for proper and accurately referenced materials for flood forecasting, inundation modeling, flood insurance rate maps, navigation charting, and topographic mapping.
  • Engineer Regulation 1130-2-445: Civil Works Digital Project Notebook (2000)
    This regulation provides guidance for updating the Civil Works Digital Project Notebook (DPN) using the Internet.
  • Engineer Regulation 1130-2-540: Project Operation - Flood Environmental Stewardship and Maintenance Policies (1996)
    This regulation establishes land management policy for Corps-administered project lands and water, based on various authorizing legislation and the principles of good environmental stewardship.
  • Engineer Regulation 1165-2-132: Water Resources Policies and Authorizations; Hazardous Toxic and Radioactive Waste (HTRW) Guidance for Civil Works Projects (1992)
    This regulation provides guidance on issues and problems associated with HTRW, which may be located within project boundaries.
  • Engineer Regulation 1165-2-26: Water Resources Policies and Authorities, Implementation and Executive Order, Engineer Regulation 11988 on Flood Plain Management. (1984)
    This regulation sets guidance for USACE implementation of Order 11988, Floodplain Management, as it pertains to civil works projects in design and construction.
  • Engineer Regulation 1165-2-400, Chapter 1: Water Resources Policies and Authorities - Recreational Planning, Development, and Management Policies (1985)
    This regulation defines objectives, philosophies, and policies for the planning, development, and management of outdoor recreation and wildlife at USACE projects.
  • Engineer Regulation 1165-2-501: Civil Works Ecosystem Restoration Policy (1999)
    This regulation provides policy on Corps of Engineers involvement in ecosystem restoration and protection through CW programs and activities.
  • Engineer Regulation 200-1-4: Environmental Compliance - Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) - Site Designation, Remediation Scope, and Recovering Costs (2003)
    This establishes the roles and responsibilities under FUSRAP in designating new sites, in determining the scope of its cleanup, and in seeking cost recovery or contribution in its cleanup efforts.
  • Engineer Regulation 200-1-5: Policy for Implementation and Integrated Application of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) Environmental Operating Principles (EOP) and Doctrine (2003)
    This regulation provides guidance on the implementation and integration of the Environmental Operating Principles across management initiatives and business processes.
  • Engineer Regulation 200-2-2: Procedures for Implementing NEPA (1988)
    This regulation provides guidance for implementation of the procedural provisions of the NEPA for the Civil Works Program of the USACE.
  • Engineer Regulation 25-1-98: Publications in the Federal Register (1996)
    This regulation prescribes policies, procedures and responsibilities for submitting U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) documents to the U.S. Army Publications and Printing Command (USAPPC) for publishing in the Federal Register (FR).

    Evaulation of Environmental Investment Research Program

  • Development of an Integrated Bio-Economic Planning System for Corps of Engineers' Planning Projects: Conceptual Design (1996)

    Federal Infrastructure Strategy Program

  • Analyzing Employment Effects of Stream Restoration Investments Final Report (1994)
    This study reports on economic development and employment effects of non-structural stream (riparian) restoration.

    Institute for Water Resources

  • Annotated Bibliography: Value of Environmental Protection and Restoration (1993)
    This annotated bibliography contains brief summaries, including key words, for 73 recently published articles and reports concerning ecological modeling and environmental evaluation. It was prepared as background material to support the development of the White Paper, "First Steps in the Development of a Method for Evaluating Environmental Restoration Projects," (IWR Report 92-R-9, December 1992). It is being published separately, because of its potential use as source material for Corps Planners and others concerned with environmental evaluation issues.
  • Bussey Lake: Demonstration Study of Incremental Analysis in Environmental Planning (1993)
    The Bussey Lake demonstration illustrates the application of incremental cost analysis for environmental planning in a real world planning situation.
  • Collection of Ecosystem Restoration Projects (Corps of Engineers Section 1135) (2000)
    This report compiles information on 28 Section 1135 projects completed as of October 1998. The projects occur in 21 different Corps Districts and in 22 different states. The information is descriptive, and intended to be useful to water resources planners and managers in formulating and evaluating Section 1135 and other Corps ecosystem restoration projects.
  • Economic and Environmental Considerations for Incremental Cost Analysis in Mitigation Planning (1991)
    This work unit focuses on investigating the issues, problems and techniques relevant to conducting incremental cost analysis for mitigating fish and wildlife losses resulting from Corps water resources projects.
  • Endangered Species and North American Waterfowl Management Plan Joint Venture Areas (1996)
  • Environmental Desk Reference (2002)
    The Environmental Desk Reference is a document intended to serve as a desk top reference on environmental statutes and executive policy for Corps of Engineers personnel. It contains summary profiles of environmental laws applicable to the Civil Works program.
  • Environmental Evaluation: The Role of Stakeholder Communication and Collaborative Planning (1996)
    This study investigates how understanding the perspectives of stakeholders in USACE environmental projects might improve the identification and communication of project benefits.
  • Evaluation of Environmental Investments Procedures Manual - Interim: Cost Effectiveness and Incremental Cost Analyses (1995)
    The purpose of this manual is to serve as a guide for conducting cost effectiveness analysis and incremental cost analysis for the evaluation of alternative environmental restoration and mitigation plans.
  • Evaluation of Environmental Investments Procedures: Overview Manual (1996)
    The purpose of this report is to support Corps planners by identifying Evaluation of Environmental Investments Research Program (EEIRP) products that can be used in applying the six-step planning process to environmental projects.
  • First Step in the Development of a Method for Evaluation Environmental Restoration Projects (1992)
    The purpose of this study is to provide conceptual underpinning and preliminary guidance on the development of an evaluation framework and measurement techniques that will contribute to a practical partnership between ecology and economics. The work reviews, evaluates, and draws conclusions about research needs from the published and unpublished literatures bearing on the relation between ecological systems and economic notions of effectiveness and evaluation.
  • Framework for Risk Analysis in Ecological Restoration Projects (2004)
    This report provides a framework for incorporating risk analysis into the USACE six-step planning process for ecosystem restoration projects. This report is part of a larger research and development effort to develop procedures and guidelines for risk analysis in USACE ecosystem restoration planning.
  • Handbook on Applying "Other Social Effects" Factors in Corps of Engineers Water Resources Planning (2009)
    The Corps has recognized that there are many implementation issues that need to be addressed if OSE factors are to play a greater role in water resources planning. IWR was directed to provide tools to Corps planners to help integrate OSE analysis into project planning.
  • Identifying Small Group Techniques for Planning Environmental Projects: A General Protocol (1996)
  • Introduction to Risk and Uncertainty in the Evaluation of Environmental Investments (1996)
    This report introduces Corps personnel involved in the planning of environmental restoration projects to the basics of risk and uncertainty analysis. In addition, it presents a sample incorporation of risk analysis in the application of a habitat evaluation procedure, through a habitat suitability index model.
  • Linkages Between Environmental Outputs and Human Services (1996)
  • Making More Informed Decisions in Your Watershed When Dollars Aren't Enough (1998)
  • Maritime Transportation System: Trends and Outlook (2007)
    USACE major responsibilities for waterborne commerce include dredging, development and maintenance of the inland and coastal waterways and related maritime infrastructure, and navigation aids. A firm understanding of marine transportation conditions and trends is critical in discharging those responsibilities. The U.S. Maritime Transportation System (MTS) no longer exists in isolation, but must interact with ports, land carriers, customers, communities, environmental restrictions and security concerns. This second in a series of Water Resources Outlook papers is intended to develop an understanding of the challenges faced by the MTS over the next 30 years and suggests roles for the private and governmental sectors, including the Corps. It is intended to provide a strong, fact-based foundation for policy, planning and priorities.
  • Monetary Measurement of Environmental Goods and Services: Framework and Summary of Techniques for Corps Planners (1996)
  • National Economic Development Procedures Manual: Primer (2009)
    As the Corps of Engineers strives to improve its planning and decision making, economic analysis is one of its most reliable and important tools. A critical element of successful economic analysis is communication with others in gathering data, making assumptions, developing models, and presenting results. This Economics Primer presents the rudiments of the science of economics and its use in the Corps of Engineers.
  • National Review of Corps Environmental Restoration Projects (1996)
    This report provides descriptive information for water resource planners and managers concerning the engineering features of recently completed or on-going Corps environmental restoration projects.
  • National Review of Non-Corps Environmental Restoration Projects (1995)
    The objective of this report is to compile management measures, engineering features, monitoring techniques, and detailed costs for a representative sample of non-Corps environmental projects or engineering projects with environmental features. This study is a companion study to National Review of Corps Environmental Restoration Projects.
  • Partnering Guide for Environmental Missions of the Air Force, Army, Navy (1996)
  • Prototype Information Tree for Environmental Restoration Plan Formulation and Cost Estimation (1995)
  • Reducing Environmental Noise Impact: A Handbook for a USAREUR Noise Management Program (1991)
  • Resource Significance Protocol for Environmental Project Planning (1997)
    The purpose of this report is to provide a short, easy-to-use guide, or protocol, for identifying and describing resource significance in environmental project planning.
  • Resource Significance: A New Perspective for Environmental Project Planning (1994)
  • Review and Evaluation of Programs for Determining Significance and Prioritization of Environmental Resources (1994)
  • Review of Monetary and Non-Monetary Valuation of Environmental Investments (1995)
    This study, under the Monetary and Other Valuation Techniques work unit, is critical to meeting the Corps aim to consider the socioeconomic impacts of environmental efforts. Its specific objectives are to describe services provided by environmental resources and systems and methods for their measurement or valuation; review existing research programs and products; and evaluation the resource constraints on field applications of measurement and valuation tools.
  • Significance in Environmental Project Planning: Resource Document (1996)
  • Trade-Off Analysis for Environmental Projects: An Annotated Bibliography (1995)
    This study explores the literature for analytical techniques that can support the complex decision-making process surrounding Corps environmental projects. Specifically, this literature review focuses on opportunities for using trade-off methodologies in the plan formulation process.
  • USARUER Commander's Guide to Environmental Management (1996)
  • Watershed Study Impediments: Field Regulatory Survey Discussion Paper (1997)

    Guidance Memos

  • Incorporating Ecosystem Services into Federal Decision Making (2015)
    This memorandum directs agencies to develop and institutionalize policies to promote consideration of ecosystem services, where appropriate and practicable, in planning, investments, and regulatory contexts, and sets forth the process for development of implementation guidance.
  • Memo: Cost Sharing for Lands Associated with Fish and Wildlife Mitigations (September 19, 2006) (2006)
    This memorandum provides guidance on the policy applicable to cost-sharing of lands, easements, rights of way, and relocations (LERRs) associated with fish and wildlife mitigation for water resources development projects, including continuing authorities program projects. The guidance will be applied prospectively to ongoing and future pre-authorization and pre-Project Cooperation Agreement (PCA) planning activities.
  • Memo: Policy Guidance on Certification of Ecosystem Output Models (2008)
    This memorandum establishes additional policy and procedures regarding the certification requirements for ecosystem output models used in all planning activities.

    Policy and Special Studies Program

  • Civil Works Environmental Desk Reference (1997)
  • Cost Effectiveness Analysis for Environmental Planning: Nine EASY Steps (1994)
    This document was developed to help USACE planners conduct cost effectiveness and incremental cost analyses in planning for environmental restoration and mitigation. It presents step-by-step instructions about how to conduct the analyses, using an example to illustrate their application to a planning problem.
  • Environmental Activities in Corps of Engineers Water Resources Programs - Charting a New Direction (1993)
  • Improving Environmental Benefits Analysis in Ecosystem Restoration Planning (2003)
    This study examined ecological and economic concepts relevant to improving environmental benefits analysis, and recommends a strategy for improving related tools, application capabilities, policy and guidance.

    Visiting Scholar Program

  • Energy & Water Nexus. Why Should the Corps Care? (2008)
    Water and energy are the two renewable resources that are most essential for human livelihood. Whereas we have been mostly concerned with non-renewable resources, as the human population grows in size and in terms of the impact that it has on the biosphere, the renewable resources become equally important. The water sector, including treatment and conveyance, is presently one of the largest users of energy, comparable to the paper and refining industries. As it becomes increasingly difficult to provide additional supply, demand will need to be managed. By providing expertise and technology for integrated water management, as well as by discharging its regulatory missions, the Army Corps of Engineers is uniquely placed to recognize energy/water interactions and to contribute to demand reduction efforts.
  • Environmental Valuation and Decision Making for Water Project Investment and Operations: Lessons from the FERC Experience (2007)
    "Environmental Valuation and Decision Making for Water Project Investment and Operations: Lessons from the FERC Experience" is of strong interest as the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) was addressing the same kinds of issues that increasingly face the Corps reviewing the viability and/or operational practices of water control projects that were built years ago, before the new emphasis on river restoration. The approach provides useful insights for the Corps as it seeks to advance its environmental restoration mission in the context of its emphasis on collaborative planning.


  • Tales of the Coast
    "Tales of the Coast" describes the coasts of the United States and the varied ways that people interact with and affect coastlines. These discussions provide an understanding of the dynamic nature of coasts and their importance to the social and economic fabric of the U.S.

    Wetland Mitigation Banking Study

  • National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study: Model Banking Instrument (1996)
  • National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study: Technical and Procedural Support to Mitigation Banking Guidance (1995)
  • National Wetland Mitigation Banking Study: The Early Mitigation Banks: A Follow-up Review (1998)
  • National Wetlands Mitigation Banking Study - An Examination of Wetlands Programs: Opportunities for Compensatory Mitigation (1994)
  • National Wetlands Mitigation Banking Study - Commercial Wetland Mitigation Credit Markets: Theory and Practice (1995)
  • National Wetlands Mitigation Banking Study - Expanding Opportunities for Successful Mitigation: The Private Credit Market Alternative (1994)
  • National Wetlands Mitigation Banking Study - Wetland Mitigation Banking (1994)
  • National Wetlands Mitigation Banking Study- Commercial Wetland Mitigation Credit Ventures: 1995 National Survey (1996)
  • National Wetlands Mitigation Banking Study First Phase Report (1994)
  • National Wetlands Mitigation Banking Study- Watershed-based Wetlands Planning: A Case Study Report (1995)
  • National Wetlands Mitigation Banking Study, Wetland Mitigation Banking: Resources Document (1994)